On July 17, Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin, CEO of Yandex LLC Elena Bunina, CEO of the Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute Sergey Gaysin, President of GAZ Group Management Company LLC Vadim Sorokin and Deputy CEO-CDO of KAMAZ PJSC Irek Gumerov signed a cooperation agreement for the development and implementation of self-driving transport in Moscow. The event took place at the Zaryadye Park Cultural Centre as part of the Moscow Urban Forum.
The agreement was signed on a 5-year basis, with the possibility of renewal. The document stipulates cooperation in the following areas:
1) development and implementation of technologies for driverless control of all types of urban passenger transport in Moscow;
2) formation of a regulatory legal and technical base for the implementation of innovative technologies and business models when providing services using motor transport;
3) development of technologies for telematic transport and intelligent automotive systems, and services based on them;
4) training of personnel in the development, testing and operation of self-driving transport, including the creation of an independent system for evaluating the qualification of employees applying for positions in new professions related to self-driving transport;
5) development and testing of solutions related to cybersecurity when operating self-driving transport;
6) popularisation of autonomous motor vehicle driving technologies with specific effects for the urban transport system.
Highly automated and self-driving vehicles will be developed using predominantly Russian technologies.
Safety in testing self-driving transport will be ensured by the following urban systems: Comprehensive Traffic Management Design (KSODD) and the Intelligent Transport System (ITS).
In fact, the ITS will become the technological basis for implementing self-driving transport in Moscow. Traffic lights, cameras, detectors, trackers on urban transport — all infrastructure has the potential to operate on the basis of Internet-of-things technology and interaction with intelligent automotive systems. This will enable transport to navigate the urban environment error-free, without the assistance of a driver. Thus, self-driving transport will be able to move around the megacity safely.
In online mode, the ITS currently monitors more than 10 thousand units of land transport, and also tracks the movement of more than 118 thousand taxi cars, more than 7.5 thousand carsharing cars and all cars in Moscow equipped with the GLONASS system. All data obtained is available at the Traffic Organisation's Situation Centre, which receives more than 350 million data packets a day. So, in the area of telematic technologies, competencies have already been developed by the Traffic Organisation.
For reference. Currently, the Moscow ITS includes:
a system of traffic light administration enabling time spent at intersections to be reduced (40 thousand traffic lights);
a teleview system enabling the time of registration and response to incidents occurring on urban roads to be reduced (over 2,700 teleview cameras);
a traffic monitoring system that provides automated control of the situation on the street and road network (3,500 detectors);
a system of photo and video recording of traffic violations (1.2 thousand stationary, 250 mobile and 34 mobile photo and video recording units, and 110 mobile units on Mosgortrans State Unitary Enterprise buses);
a system of visual information for road users (175 information boards).
A decrease of 10–25% in the number of accidents at the installation sites of photo and video cameras for recording violations was one of the significant results of the development of ITS in Moscow.
The agreement emphasizes that Moscow is one of the major megacities in the world for implementing innovations in the area of transport.
For example, the metro cars called “Moscow”, an advanced type of train manufactured in Russia, entered the Moscow Metro in 2017. A self-diagnostic system is used for the collection, storage and output of information on the operator's monitor, with registration of the operational parameters of all on-board systems, power supply conditions, train traffic parameters and control functions. In addition, information about which side the platform is on at the upcoming station is displayed on the above-door displays to notify passengers. Moscow trains use a system of route guidance which provides mapping of their current position on the line. An automatic system for detecting and extinguishing fires, which detects fire-hazard situations at an early stage by analysing smoke-forming criteria, is also installed.
The fare payment system has been developed significantly in Moscow. Money can be added to a Troika transport card using the Moscow Metro application. At the same time, Android smartphones with NFC function can be used to add money to a Troika card remotely using the Moscow Metro mobile application.
At more than 80 Moscow Metro stations, as well as all MCC stations, contactless MasterCard and Visa cards can be used to pay for travel. The cost of one trip is 40 roubles. To pay for travel, a contactless card is placed against the reader on the turnstile, and held there until the authorization signal is given.
A contactless pass system was activated at Metro stations on the days when football matches were taking place in Moscow, specially for the World Cup. Passengers passed through the turnstile free of charge, without applying anything to the reader, – the turnstile opened automatically.
Since 2017, tickets can be purchased in the form of key fobs, bracelets and rings. These accessories help to save time: now passengers don't need to search through their bag or pocket for a card before passing through the turnstile.
On these and other projects, Moscow sets the trends for many cities not only in Russia, but also worldwide. Moscow's experience is utilised in Vienna and Berlin when planning bus routes, and the regulation principles for taxi transportation are used in Dubai and Riyadh.