From 2001 to 2005 served as governor of Tyumen oblast.
From 2005 to 2008 was head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.
From 2008 to 2010 Sobyanin was the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, and head of the Executive Office of the Government of the Russian Federation.
In 2010, upon the recommendation of the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev, the Moscow City Duma appointed him as Mayor of Moscow for 5 years.
In 2013 was elected as Mayor of Moscow for 5 years. In 2018 was reelected, sworn in as Moscow Mayor on 18 September. At the inauguration ceremony, Sergei Sobyanin announced that reforms in healthcare, transport, city beautification, urban economy and education would continue.