Kudrin graduated from the Faculty of Economics of Leningrad State University with a Ph.D. in Economics (1988) and began his career in Leningrad (St. Petersburg).
From 9 March 2004, he was appointed Minister of Finance of the Russian Federation by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation.
From September 2007, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation – Minister of Finance of the Russian Federation by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation.
Since April 2012, he has held the position of Chairman of the Committee of Civil Initiatives, a community of professionals able to offer alternative solutions to the challenges faced by the country.
In April 2016, he headed the Centre for Strategic Research and was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Presidential Economic Council of the Russian Federation.
On 22 May 2018 by proposal of the President of the Russian Federation, he was appointed by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation to the position of Chairman of the Accounts Chamber.
He is the author of more than 30 scientific works in the field of economics and finance.
Mr Kudrin has received numerous state awards including: a third- and fourth-class medal of the Order of Merit for the Motherland, a first-class medal of P.A. Stolypin, medal of V.V. Leontiev "For Achievements in the Economy", he is also a Grand Officer of the Order of Merit for the Italian Republic.